Philippine Standard Time
Thursday, January 24, 2019
The Philippines, an archipelago with 7,100 islands, has a population of around 97 million in 2012 with a population growth rate of 1.9%. Geographically, it is divided into three main islands, namely Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao. There are 17 regions, including the Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao (ARMM), 82 provinces, 135 cities, and 1,493 municipalities. Functional literacy rate is high at 86%. In 2011, the country was categorized as a low-to middle-income country with gross national income per capita of $4,160.
The decentralized health care system is managed, coordinated and regulated by the Department of Health (DOH) that is composed of the Central Office, 17 Regional Offices (ROs) and retained hospitals. Integrated basic health services, including TB diagnostic and treatment services, are provided by 2,314 rural health units (RHUs)/health centers (HCs) and 16,219 barangay health stations (BHS) that are under the local municipal/city government units. Majority of the RHUs/HCs have a TB microscopy laboratory that provides Direct Sputum Smear Microscopy (DSSM). The locally-managed provincial health office (PHO)/city health office (CHO) provides technical oversight over these peripheral health units. Communities support these health units through the community health teams (CHTs) that include barangay health workers (BHWs).
The private sector is also engaged in the production and provision of health goods and services through private clinics, hospitals and laboratories, drugstores, and other facilities. The DOH encourages public-private sector collaboration in health.
DOH priorities and strategies are contained in its health agenda called Universal Health Care (UHC) or Kalusugang Pangkalahatan (KP) that aims to ensure financial risk protection for the poor, provide access to quality health services, and attain health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Specific health targets including that for TB control are contained in the National Objectives for Health.
|Prevalence of culture-positive TB||6.6/1,000||3.1/1,000||2.0/1,000|
|Prevalence of sputum smear-positive TB||4.2%||4.2%||6.3%|
|Prevalence of those with CXR findings suggestive of TB||2.5%||2.3%||2.1%|
|Rate of TB symptomatic||17.0%||18.4%||13.5%|
|Prevalence of those with CXR findings suggestive of TB||8.6/1,000||3.1/1,000||4.7/1,000|
TB is more prevalent among males compared to females and among the 25–55 year old age group. It is also higher among the malnourished and diabetics. The 1997 survey showed that prevalence of TB among the urban poor in Metro Manila is twice that of the general population.
The first national Drug Resistance Survey was done in 2003–2004 and revealed the following prevalence of drug resistance: 4% among the new cases, 21% among the re-treatment cases, and 5.7% combined. The second National Drug Resistance Survey was done in 2011–2012 and showed a decrease in the prevalence of drug resistance among new cases from 4% to 2%. However, there was no change in the prevalence of drug resistance re-treatment cases which remained at 21%.